Fauna Biodiversity PermaTree Ecuador

PermaTree Area Fauna Biodiversity

The current state (from March 2016 to today) of all the photographed biodiverse fauna at finca Yantza / PermaTree. Located in the southeastern region of Ecuador, alongside the Cóndor Cordillera at the edge of the Andes mountain range and the Amazon River Basin in Ecuador. More basic farm information about PermaTree – here / GPS coordinates of Finca PermaTree. Most used device to photograph the fauna where 1. Smartphones 2. Digital bridge cameras 3. Solar Trail Cameras –  so the quality may vary a lot.

Up-to-date: PermaTree Flora and Fauna Monitoring via iNaturalist App 

Biodiversity’s Importance

All species are interconnected. They depend on one another. Forests provide homes for animals. Animals eat plants. The plants need healthy soil to grow. Fungi help decompose organisms to fertilize the soil. Bees and other insects carry pollen from one plant to another, which enables the plants to reproduce. With less biodiversity, these connections weaken and sometimes break, harming all the species in the ecosystem.

Monitoring Fauna Biodiversity at PermaTree

It’s going to be a working progress regarding all the correct English and Scientific naming, so we can use any one who is interested in helping out / contributing with their knowledge of fauna. We believe this is a key pillar as holistic permaculture farm to be monitoring our local environment and understand the occurring changes and if needed what actions we undertake to improve the status quo.

So far we have been able to identity –  Amphibians (Frog, Crab), Reptiles (Snakes, Lizards, Geckos, Iguana), Grasshoppers, Mantises (Praying Mantis), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and lost of birds (Parrot, Tucan, Hummingbirds, Woodpecker, etc), Spiders (Araneae), Scorpion, Dragon Fly, Caterpillars, Hymenoptera (Ants), Wasps, Flies and Bees, Moskitos, Mammals (Rabbit, Armadillo, Peccary, Agouti), more Insects, Beetles and Bugs.

Birds

 Dwarf Blue-Headed Parrot (Pionus Sordidus)

Pionus Sordidus - Dwarf Blue-Headed Parrot Pionus Sordidus - Dwarf Blue-Headed Parrot

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus)

Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus

Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus)

Fauna: Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus)

Blue-gray Tanager, Thraupis episcopus  Thraupis episcopus - Blue Bird

The blue-gray tanager is a medium-sized South American songbird of the tanager family, Thraupidae. Its range is from Mexico south to northeast Bolivia and northern Brazil, all of the Amazon Basin, except the very south. It has been introduced to Lima. On Trinidad and Tobago, this bird is called blue jean.

Green-and-gold tanager (Tangara schrankii)

Fauna: Green and gold tanager (Tangara schrankii) Fauna: Green and gold tanager (Tangara schrankii)


Turquoise Dacnis (Dacnis hartlaubi)

Fauna: Turquoise Dacnis (Dacnis hartlaubi)

Turquoise Dacnis (Dacnis hartlaubi) Turquoise Dacnis (Dacnis hartlaubi)


Yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela)

Yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela) Yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela)

The yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela) is a passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds in much of northern South America from Panama and Trinidad south to Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil. The song of the male yellow-rumped cacique is a brilliant mixture of fluting notes with cackles, wheezes and sometimes mimicry. There are also many varied calls, and an active colony can be heard from a considerable distance. In Peruvian folklore, this species – like other caciques and oropendolas – is called paucar, or – referring to this species only – paucarcillo (“little paucar”). This species is apparently the paucar that, according to a folktale of Moyobamba, originated as a rumor-mongering boy who always wore black pants and a yellow jacket. When he spread an accusation against an old woman who was a fairy in disguise, she turned him into a noisy, wandering bird. The bird’s appearance is thought to augur good news.


Crested oropendola (Psarocolius Decumanus)

Fauna: Crested oropendola (Psarocolius Decumanus) Fauna: Crested oropendola (Psarocolius Decumanus) Psarocolius Decumanus - Crested oropendola

The crested oropendola also known as the Suriname crested oropendola or the cornbird (Psarocolius decumanus) is a New World tropical icterid bird. It is a resident breeder in lowland South America east of the Andes, from Panama and Colombia south to northern Argentina, as well as on Trinidad and Tobago.It is a common bird, seen alone or in small flocks foraging in trees for large insects, fruit and some nectar. The male is 46 cm long and weighs 300 g; the smaller female is 37 cm long and weighs 180 g. The plumage of the crested oropendola has a musty smell due to the oil from the preen gland. Adult males are mainly black with a chestnut rump and a tail which is bright yellow apart from two dark central feathers. There is a long narrow crest which is often difficult to see. The iris is blue and the long bill is whitish. Females are similar but smaller, duller, and crestless. The crested oropendola inhabits forest edges and clearings. It is a colonial breeder which builds a hanging woven nest, more than 125 cm long, high in a tree. It lays two blotched blue-grey eggs which hatch in 15–19 days, with another 24–36 days to fledging.


Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo)

Fauna: Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo), PermaTree, Ecuador Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo)

The silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder in South America from eastern Colombia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and central Brazil, Perú and on Trinidad. Silver-beaked tanagers are 18 centimetres long and weigh 25 grams. Adult males are velvety crimson black with a deep crimson throat and breast. The upper mandible of the bill is black, but the enlarged lower mandible is bright silver in appearance. The bill is pointed upwards in display. The female is much duller, with brownish upperparts, reddish brown underparts and a black bill. These are social birds which eat mainly fruit, but insects are also taken. The silver-beaked tanager is often seen in groups of six to ten, frequently giving a call described as cheeng. Its song is a slow thin kick-wick.


Hummingbirds (Trochilidae)

Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)

Fauna: Rufous-tailed hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl) Fauna: Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)Fauna: Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata) Fauna: Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)

Fauna: Hummingbird - Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata) Hummingbirds

Black-eared fairy (Heliothryx auritus aurita)

Fauna: Hummingbird Black-eared fairy (Heliothryx auritus aurita)

Hummingbirds are birds native to the Americas and constitute the biological family Trochilidae. They are known as hummingbirds because of the humming sound created by their beating wings which flap at high frequencies audible to humans. They hover in mid-air at rapid wing-flapping rates, which vary from around 12 beats per second in the largest species, to in excess of 80 in some of the smallest. Of those species that have been measured in wind tunnels, their top speed exceeds 15 m/s (54 km/h) and some species can dive at speeds in excess of 22 m/s (79 km/h).


Amazonian Grey Saltator (Saltator coerulescens)

Amazonian Grey Saltator (Saltator coerulescens) Amazonian Grey Saltator (Saltator coerulescens)

The greyish saltator (Saltator coerulescens) is a seed-eating songbird that is widespread in the tropical Americas. On average, the greyish saltator is 20 cm long and weighs 52 g. The plumage depends on age and subspecies, but in general this bird has grey or greyish-olive upperparts, a white stripe over the eye, a narrow white throat, a grey breast and a buff or cinnamon belly.


Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus)

Fauna: Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus) Fauna: Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus) Fauna: Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus) Fauna: Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus)


Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)

Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) Fauna: Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)

The social flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) is a passerine bird from the Americas, a member of the large tyrant flycatcher family (Tyrannidae). They like to perch openly in trees, several meters above ground. From such perches they will sally out for considerable distances to catch insects in flight, to which purpose they utilize a range of aerobatic maneuvers. They also regularly hover and glean for prey and small berries—e.g. from gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba), which they seek out and also utilize in human-modified habitat such as secondary forest or urban parks and gardens—and will pick off prey from the ground and even enter shallow waters to feed on aquatic invertebrates, tadpoles and occasionally small fish.


Collared Araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) Toucan

Collared Araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) Toucan

The collared aracari or collared araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) is a toucan, a near-passerine bird. It breeds from southern Mexico to Panama; also Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica. Like other toucans, the collared aracari is brightly marked and has a large bill. The sexes are alike in appearance, with a black head and chest and dark olive green upperparts, apart from a red rump and upper tail. There is reddish collar on the rear neck which gives rise to the English and scientific (torquatus) names. The underparts are bright yellow, with a round black spot in the centre of the breast and a red-tinted black band across the belly. The thighs are chestnut. This species is primarily an arboreal fruit-eater, but will also take insects, lizards, eggs, and other small prey.


Yellow-tufted woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus)

The yellow-tufted woodpecker is a species of woodpecker. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.


Palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum)

Fauna: palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Fauna: palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Fauna: palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Fauna: palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum)

The palm tanager is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder from Nicaragua south to Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil. It also breeds on Trinidad and, since 1962, on Tobago. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is known by colloquial names such as the “palmiste” and the “green jean”.


Blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis)

Fauna: Blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) Fauna: blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) Fauna: blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) Fauna: blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis)

The blue-necked tanager is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and heavily degraded former forest.


Streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii)

Fauna: Streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) Fauna: Streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii)

The streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) is a passerine bird which breeds in the tropical New World from southern Mexico to northwestern Peru, northern Brazil and Guyana, and also on Trinidad. This woodcreeper is found in lowlands up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) altitude, although normally below 900 m (3,000 ft), in damp light woodland, plantations, gardens, and clearings with trees. It builds a leaf-lined nest 4.5 to 24 m (15 to 79 ft) up in a tree cavity, or sometimes an old woodpecker hole, and lays two white eggs. The streak-headed woodcreeper feeds on spiders and insects, creeping up trunks and extracting its prey from the bark or mosses. It is normally seen alone or in a pair and unlike spot-crowned, rarely joins mixed-species feeding flocks.


Gray Palm Tanager

 



Reptiles

Whiptail Lizard (Kentropyx pelviceps)

Fauna: Whiptail Lizard (Kentropyx pelviceps) Fauna: Whiptail Lizard (Kentropyx pelviceps)

Enyalioides

Fauna: Enyalioides Fauna: Enyalioides

Polychrus marmoratus

Fauna: Polychrus marmoratus

Whiptail lizard (Kentropyx)

Fauna: Whiptail lizard (Kentropyx)

Mabuya nigropunctata

Fauna: Mabuya nigropunctata


Amphibians

Striking Yellow-Black Rain Frog (Dendropsophus rhodopeplus) Ranita bandeada

Striking Yellow-Black Rain Frog (Dendropsophus rhodopeplus) Ranita bandeada Striking Yellow-Black Rain Frog (Dendropsophus rhodopeplus) Ranita bandeada

Slender-legged tree frog (Osteocephalus)

Fauna: Slender-legged tree frog (Osteocephalus) Fauna: Slender-legged tree frog (Osteocephalus)

Lithobates catesbeianus. Bull frog

Fauna: Lithobates catesbeianus. Bull frog

Rhinella marina. Sugar cane frog

Fauna: Rhinella marina. Sugar cane frog


Freshwater Crab

Freshwater crabs are found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They live in a wide range of water bodies, from fast-flowing rivers to swamps, as well as in tree boles or caves. They are primarily nocturnal, emerging to feed at night; most are omnivores, although a small number are specialist predators, such as Platythelphusa armata from Lake Tanganyika, which feeds almost entirely on snails. Some species provide important food sources for various vertebrates. A number of freshwater crabs are secondary hosts of flukes in the genus Paragonimus, which causes paragonimiasis in humans. The majority of species are narrow endemics, occurring in only a small geographical area.


Mantises

Praying Mantis

 Mantis Religiosa carolina mantis 

Mantis

   

Grasshoppers

Yellow Striped Grasshopper (Tropidacris cf cristata)      Fauna: Grasshopper Fauna: Grasshopper Fauna: Tiny Green Grasshopper


Monkey- or Matchstick Grasshoppers (Eumastacidae)

Monkey- or matchstick grasshopper (Eumastacidae) Monkey- or matchstick grasshopper (Eumastacidae)

Eumastacidae are a family of grasshoppers sometimes known as monkey- or matchstick grasshoppers. They usually have thin legs that are held folded at right angles to the body, sometimes close to the horizontal plane. Many species are wingless and the head is at an angle with the top of the head often jutting above the line of the thorax and abdomen. They have three segmented tarsi and have a short antenna with a knobby organ at the tip. They do not have a prosternal spine or tympanum. Most species are tropical and the diversity is greater in the Old World. They are considered primitive within the Orthoptera and feed on algae, ferns and gymnosperms, the more ancient plant groups. The families Chorotypidae and Morabidae were formerly included in this group as subfamilies but are now considered as families within the Eumastacoidea. With the exception of the central Asian Gomphomastacinae, all other subfamilies are restricted to South America.


  Grasshopper     Fauna: giant grasshopper   

Snakes

Black-collared Snake (aka Amazon egg eater; Drepanoides anomalous) Falsa ratonera

Black-collared Snake (aka Amazon egg eater; Drepanoides anomalous) Falsa ratonera Black-collared Snake (aka Amazon egg eater; Drepanoides anomalous) Falsa ratonera


Yellow-bellied Puffing Snake (Spilotes Sulphureus aka Pseustes sulphureus)

  

Aka Pseustes sulphureus, commonly known as the yellow-bellied puffing snake, is a species of snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to South America. P. sulphureus is a large snake, which can grow up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) in total length (including tail). Adults of P. sulphureus feed on small mammals and birds, while juveniles feed on lizards, mice and rats.


Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria)

Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria) Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria)Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria) Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria)

Epicrates cenchria is a boa species endemic to Central and South America. Common names include the rainbow boa, and slender boa. A terrestrial species, it is known for its attractive iridescent/holographic sheen caused by structural coloration. Nine subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies.

Snake (Colubridae)

Fauna: Snake (Colubridae) Fauna: Snake (Colubridae)


Blind snake (Amphisbaena bassleri)

Blind snake (Amphisbaena bassleri)  Blind snake (Amphisbaena bassleri) 


False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola)

False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola) False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola) False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola) False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola) False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola)

Micrurus steindachneri

Fauna: snake Micrurus steindachneri

micrurus genus

Fauna: Snake micrurus genus

Oxyrhopus petola, commonly known as the false coral or calico snake, is a species of colubrid snake endemic to South America. O. petolarius is rear-fanged, and its venom is extremely toxic to anole lizards. O. petolarius feeds on lizards, frogs, small rodents, birds, and probably other snakes.


Hoja Podrida (Bothrops atrox)

Rotten leaf viper (bothrocophias microphthalmus)

Fauna: Rotten leaf viper (bothrocophias microphthalmus)

Bothrops atrox — also known as the common lancehead, fer-de-lance, barba amarilla and mapepire balsain — is a venomous pit viper species found in the tropical lowlands of northern South America east of the Andes. The color pattern is highly variable, including a ground color that may be olive, brown, tan, gray, yellow, or (rarely) rusty. The body markings are highly variable, as is the degree of contrast: in some specimens the pattern is very well defined, while in others it may be virtually absent. In general, however, the body pattern consists of a series of dorsolateral blotches, rectangular or trapezoidal in shape, which extend from the first scale row to the middle of the back. These blotches may oppose or alternate across the midline, often fusing to form bands. They also have pale borders, which in some cases may be prominent, and may be invaded from below by tan or gray pigment, occasionally dividing them into pairs of ventrolateral spots. The belly may be white, cream or yellowish gray, with an increasing amount of gray to black mottling posteriorly that may fade again under the tail. The head usually does not have any markings other than a moderately wide postocular stripe that runs from behind the eye back to the angle of the mouth. The iris is gold or bronze, with varying amounts of black reticulation, while the tongue is black. Although generally terrestrial, it is also an excellent swimmer and even climbs trees when necessary to reach prey. Generally nocturnal, it may forage at any time of the day, though, if necessary. These snakes are also easily agitated.

These snakes are known to search for rodents in coffee and banana plantations. Workers there are often bitten by the snakes, which can lie camouflaged for hours, nearly undetectable, and strike with high speed. Their venom consists mostly of hemotoxin, a toxic protein that affects the circulatory and nervous system; it destroys red blood cells, and sometimes loss of memory occurs. They are much feared because their venom is particularly lethal and fast acting. Presently, treatment is usually possible if the victim receives medical attention soon enough. Commonly, bites from this snake cause symptoms including nausea, blackouts, and paralysis. In almost all cases, temporary and sometimes permanent loss of local or ‘short term’ memory were reported. Extended hospital stays, as well as weight loss of up to 15 pounds, have also been reported. Venom yield averages 124 milligrams (1.91 gr), although it may be as much as 342 milligrams (5.28 gr). The enzyme reptilase (batroxobin), derived from this snake’s venom, is used in modern medical laboratories to measure fibrinogen levels and blood coagulation capability. The test is considered to be a replacement for thrombin time, and is used when heparin is present in the sample. The enzyme is unaffected by heparin.


Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

Crocozona coecias

Fauna: Crocozona coecias

Amarynthis is a monotypic genus of butterflies in the family Riodinidae. Its sole species, Amarynthis meneria, the meneria metalmark, is a common species in lowland rainforests east of the Andes from Venezuela, Suriname and Guyana, south through the Brazilian Amazon to Peru and northern Argentina.

Baeotus beotus

Fauna: Baeotus beotus

Rothschildia sp.

Fauna: Rothschildia silkmoths

Panacea sp

Fauna: Panacea sp

Siproeta stelenes biplagiata

Fauna: Siproeta stelenes biplagiata


Diaethria clymena nymphalidae 89 o 98 Butterfly

Diaethria clymena nymphalidae 89 o 98 Butterfly  Diaethria clymena nymphalidae 89 o 98 Butterfly 

Diaethria is a brush-footed butterfly genus found in the Neotropical realm, ranging from Mexico to Paraguay.

Species in this genus are commonly called eighty-eights like the related genera Callicore and Perisama, in reference to the characteristic patterns on the hindwing undersides of many. In Diaethria, the pattern consists ofZ black dots surrounded by concentric white and black lines, and typically looks like the numbers “88” or “89”.


Caligo sp1

Fauna: giant owl butterfly (Caligo) Fauna owl butterfly

Caligo sp2

Fauna: Giant Owl Butterfly (Caligo sp2)

The owl butterflies, the genus Caligo, are known for their huge eyespots, which resemble owls’ eyes. They are found in the rainforests and secondary forests of Mexico, Central, and South America.

 

Dryas iulia

Fauna: Dryas iulia

Hamadryas arinome ssp

Fauna: Hamadryas arinome ssp          Fauna: giant owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus)

Colobura dirce ssp

Fauna: Colobura dirce ssp

Eueides isabella

Fauna: Eueides isabella

Heliconius erato etylus

Fauna: Heliconius erato etylus

Marpesia petreus petreus

Fauna: Marpesia petreus petreus

Bullseye moth. Automeris liberia CRAMER, 1780

Bullseye moth. Automeris liberia CRAMER, 1780

automeris liberia

Fauna: automeris liberia

Battus crassus butterfly

Fauna: Battus crassus

Battus philenor, the pipevine swallowtail or blue swallowtail, is a swallowtail butterfly found in North America and Central America. This butterfly is black with iridescent-blue hindwings. They are found in many different habitats, but are most commonly found in forests. Caterpillars are often black or red, and feed on compatible plants of the genus Aristolochia. They are known for sequestering acids from the plants they feed on in order to defend themselves from predators by being poisonous when consumed. The adults feed on the nectar of a variety of flowers. Some species of Aristolochia are toxic to the larvae, typically tropical varieties.

Emesis sp.

Fauna: Emesis sp.

Doxocopa agathina ssp

Fauna: Doxocopa agathina ssp

Myonia sp

Fauna: Myonia sp

Euides isabella

Fauna: Euides isabella

Heliconius sp

Fauna: Heliconius sp

Citheronia sp. Saturniid

Fauna: Citheronia sp. Saturniid


Caterpillar

Megalopygidae. Moth caterpillar

Fauna: Megalopygidae. Moth caterpillar        Fauna: Red Caterpillar   

Giant sphinx moth. Pseudosphinx tetrio

Fauna: Giant sphinx moth. Pseudosphinx tetrio  

Pseudautomeris sp. Saturniid moth

Fauna: Pseudautomeris sp. Saturniid moth  



Spiders (Araneae)

Flower Crab Spider (Epicadus heterogaster)

Fauna: Flower Crab Spider (Epicadus heterogaster)

The flower crab spiders (Epicadus heterogaster) attracts and eat insects by disguising themselves as flowers. They can change colors to better match the flower on which they are.

Golden silk orb-weavers spider (Nephila)

Fauna: Golden silk orb-weavers spider (Nephila)


     Tarantula - spider         


Scorpion


Dragon Fly

Fauna: Scarlet dragonfly Fauna: Scarlet dragonfly

Fauna: Green darner (Anax junius) Dragonfly

 Fauna: Dragonfly Libélula (variable dancer)

Crocothemis erythraea is a species of dragonfly in the family Libellulidae. Its common names include broad scarlet, common scarlet-darter, scarlet darter and scarlet dragonfly


Green Ladybug

           


Hymenoptera (Ants)

    


Termites

Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonizing most landmasses except Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests.

Termites Termites


Wasps, Flies and Bees

     Fauna: Hoverfly (Diptera) Tabano 


Cuckoo Wasp (Chrysididae)

Fauna: Cuckoo Wasp (Chrysididae)

Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration.


Bees

Bee Fauna: Bee

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees range in size from tiny stingless bee species whose workers are less than 2 millimetres (0.08 in) long, to Megachile pluto, the largest species of leafcutter bee, whose females can attain a length of 39 millimetres (1.54 in). The most common bees in the Northern Hemisphere are the Halictidae, or sweat bees, but they are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies.


Melipona (stingless honey bees)

Melipona (stingless honey bees) Melipona (stingless honey bees)

Stinglessbee (Tetragonisca, Melipona)

Fauna: Stinglessbee (Tetragonisca, Melipona)

The stingless bees Melipona local is a genus of stingless bees, widespread in warm areas of the Neotropics (Latin American) Stingless bees, sometimes called stingless honey bees or simply meliponines, are a large group of bees (about 500 species), comprising the tribe Meliponini (or subtribe Meliponina according to other authors). They belong in the family Apidae, and are closely related to common honey bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, and bumblebees. Meliponines have stingers, but they are highly reduced and cannot be used for defense, though these bees exhibit other defensive behaviors and mechanisms. Meliponines are not the only type of “stingless” bee; all male bees and many female bees of several other families, such as Andrenidae, also cannot sting.


Moskitos

Moskitos - helicopter like hovering moskito with feather Moskitos - helicopter like hovering moskito with feather Moskito


Cicadas (cicadidae)

Fauna: Cicadas (cicadidae) Fauna: Cicadas (cicadidae)


Mammals

Rabbit

Rabbit Rabbit


Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)

Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) Source Wikipedia - Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)

Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell. About nine extant genera and 21 extant species of armadillo have been described, some of which are distinguished by the number of bands on their armour. Their average length is about 75 cm (30 in), including tail. The giant armadillo grows up to 150 cm (59 in) and weighs up to 54 kg (119 lb), while the pink fairy armadillo is a diminutive species, with an overall length of 13–15 cm (5–6 in). All species are native to the Americas, where they inhabit a variety of different environments. Recent genetic research suggests that an extinct group of giant armoured mammals, the glyptodonts, should be included within the lineage of armadillos, having diverged some 35 million years ago, much more recently than previously assumed.


Peccary (Wild Spiked Boar)

Peccary (Wild Spiked Boar) Peccary (Wild Spiked Boar)

A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs). They are found throughout Central and South America and in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 cm (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs about 20 to 40 kg (44 to 88 lb).


Central American Agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) – Guatusa

Central American Agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) - Guatusa Source: Wikipedia

The Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) is a species of agouti from the family Dasyproctidae.[2] The main portion of its range is from Chiapas and the Yucatan Peninsula (southern Mexico), through Central America, to northwestern Ecuador, Colombia and far western Venezuela. A highly disjunct population is found in southeastern Peru, far southwestern Brazil, Bolivia, western Paraguay and far northwestern Argentina. The disjunct population has been treated as a separate species, the brown agouti (Dasyprocta variegata),[3] but a major review of the geographic variation is necessary.[2] The Central American agouti has also been introduced to Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Hispaniola and the Cayman Islands.


Other Insects

Machaca amazonica (Fulgora laternaria)

Machaca amazonica (Fulgora laternaria)

The fulgorid insect Fulgora laternaria (often misspelled “lanternaria”), is a planthopper known by a large variety of common names including lantern fly, peanut bug, peanut-headed lanternfly, alligator bug, machaca, chicharra-machacuy, cocoposa (in Spanish) and jequitiranaboia (in the Amazon region).


New World Screw Worm (Cochliomyia) flesh eating screwworm

 New World Screw Worm (Cochliomyia) flesh eating screwworm Source: Wikipedia

Cochliomyia is a genus in the family Calliphoridae, known as blowflies, in the order Diptera. Cochliomyia is commonly referred to as the New World Screwworm Flies, as distinct from Old World Screw Worm Flies. Four species are in this genus: C. macellaria, C. hominivorax, C. aldrichi, and C. minima.[2][3] C. hominivorax is known as the primary screwworm because its larvae produce myiasis and feed on living tissue. This feeding causes deep, pocket-like lesions in the skin, which can be very damaging to the animal host. C. macellaria is known as the secondary screwworm because its larvae produce myiasis, but feed only on necrotic tissue. This species is forensically important because it is often associated with dead bodies and carcasses. Both C. hominivorax and C. macellaria thrive in warm, tropical areas. The New World screwworm fly shares many characteristics of the common house fly.


Snail

Giant snail (Megalobulimus popelairianus)

Fauna: Giant snail (Megalobulimus popelairianus)


Beetles and Bugs

 avocado tree bark eating insect bug     

Rice harvesting

Have you ever wondered how rice is made respectively harvested? Read more to learn about this process and our learning.

This was the first rice harvesting at the farm – entire Thursday 20 September 2018. As you can see the harvest was done manually and believe me when I say it was hard work. We where six people doing the work…

rice field seen from above

The rice field was not huge in size but in effective work it was. You can see we managed to plant the rice in lines. This made the harvest easier than planting it randomly. On the left side you can see the Ginger and Turmeric bordering the rice.

First step was to cut the rice halms. The rice is cut halm by halm with a rounded type of knife with sharp-edged mussel.

rice harvesting tools

This is the tool we used to cut the rice.

harvesting rice manually

So this process took a few hours and as usual before and after midday the sun and the tropical heat are even stronger so we where sweating like in a Finnish sauna. But it got more extreme in the next step.

Next step was to build a tent like structure with transparent plastic. As you can see in the picture surrounding the rice and the tent is the soursop plantation.

Next step was to get the rice stem out of the rice halm by hitting it on the floor in a plastic tent so we would not loose any rice stems…

Video Manual Rice Harvesting at PermaTree in Ecuador

This was the output. Mostly rice stems but not only. Lots of parts of the rice halm too.

Next step was to create a filter to exclude everything but the rice stems. We made it manually like seen in the picture.

 

Rice we harvested

Final step to get the white rice was to send the harvested 50kg rice to a machine which separates the grains of rice halm from the rice halm husks. Such a machine is called a rice huller and is used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull rice. Traditionally, it would be pounded using some form of mortar and pestle. So after waiting for 8 weeks, there was not enough rice to be processed, we got our 50kg grain rice bag which was then only 25kg heavy without all the husks / chaff. Looks pretty impressive now that simple rice dosent it?

 

Nutrients in Rice

White rice is about 90% carbohydrate, 8 percent protein and 2 percent fat. White rice is a good source of magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, selenium, iron, folic acid, thiamine and niacin. It is low in fiber and its fat content is primarily omega-6 fatty acids, which are considered pro-inflammatory.

 

Rice consumption in Ecuador

Does it seem as if Ecuadorians eat a lot of rice? Relatively speaking, compared to North Americans. However Ecuador’s consumption pales in comparison to Asia. Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia – where they eat about 100 kg per capita annually, on average per person! Ecuadorians consume about 30 kg per year, or about 1.3 cups of cooked rice daily. The coastal region West of the Andean range – Esmeraldas, Guayas, Los Ríos, Manabí, El Oro, Santa Elena is where most of Ecuador’s rice crop is grown.

Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional three course meal of soup, a course that includes rice and a protein, and then dessert and coffee to finish.

History of Rice in Ecuador

Rice cultivation began in Asia and then Africa about 14,000 years ago. Rice was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers in the early 1500s. Spanish colonizers are thought to have introduced Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz. The Portuguese and their African slaves introduced it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Today, rice is the third-highest agricultural commodity grown globally. In Ecuador before the Spanish colonizers introduced the rice, the people where used to eat a rice like food, with 6,000 years of history, called Quinoa. After the conquest,Quinoa was largely replaced by European staples, such as wheat, rye and rice, though quinoa cultivation continued in rural areas. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) declared 2013 the International Year of Quinoa, and in Peru the production of this once nearly forgotten crop increased 350% from 1980 to 2000. Quinoa is often called a superfood for its remarkable nutrient properties, including all 9 amino acids essential for proper nutrition. Of these, lysine and tryptophan—which are often lacking in plant proteins—are abundant in quinoa, making it a good protein substitution for meat.

So because Quinoa is now so popular and demand rises, so do prices. And as prices rise, Ecuadorians, Peruvians and Bolivians are no longer to afford what was once a staple food that provided important nutrients often lacking in rural Andean communities. Quinoa was quickly replaced with Rice.

Clearing zone-G for additional Fruit Tree PolyCultures

When we talk about cutting pasture grass. It’s not the same thing in a non tropical climate like in Europe. The grass here is GIANT Elephant grass (the African Pennisetum purpureum, also known as giant king) which grows up tu 3 meters tall and is very thick up to 1cm! Check out the photos.

 

So it’s a real challenge to cut it. Even more to get rid of it. The only natural solution we found so far after doing various experiments over the period of 24month is, 1st cut it and 3 weeks later when it has grown back to 20cm high, we fumigate it with a natural solution which contains urea (Chemical formula‎: ‎CH4N2O) / nitrogen (N). Then the nitrogen will be sucked up by all the Gramineae (family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses,) and within 14 days the Gramineae-plant starts to dry out. We have a success rate of about 90%. So after a while we have to go back once or twice to get rid of all the grasses. Which obviously ? are not endemic to this region and where brought with the idea of removing all the Amazon jungle forest to make space for more cattle farming … Since the beginning of the colonization in the 1960s, around 15% of the Amazon forest has been removed through agricultural practices. Source 2003 – Cattle ranching in the Amazon rainforest

 

The giant grass will be replaced with the following polyculture according to our previous learnings with the adaptive keyline access path with Arachis Pintoi & Vetiver grass.

 

Drone Bird View Video

Disruption of the food system

Today the greatest minds are busy with disruption of banking system, automobile industry, space rockets, energy sector etc. But only a few seem to focus on our food system or “food value chain”

Organic Farming VS Conventional Farming?

People tend to forget that organic farming is actually the traditional way of farming. Industrial or conventional farming became the new norm for industrialized countries after the ‘green-revolution‘ of the 1950s and 60s. This period saw the development of new seed varieties, and mass use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation to produce higher yields. The big difference between organic and industrialized farming is that industrialized farming relies on chemical inputs and a highly mechanized approach, whereas organics is about farming holistically, recognizing that we are part of a broader ecosystem. Although, it is important to note that some large-sale organic farms still use industrialized approaches such as mono-crops and some industrialized farms also adhere to organic principles, using limited amounts of chemical inputs.

This blog post is about the food before its gets mixed-up and sold as added value product like a Starbucks chocolate chip oh sorry … the FDA won’t let Starbucks use the term ‘chocolate chip’. Its called a Starbucks “chocolaty” chip. Starbucks’ chips’ percentage of actual cocoa bean is too low to qualify as a true chocolate chip. That makes the little nibs perfect for melting, but less ideal in the dictionary definition of the term. (Starbucks chocolate chips). So always keep in mind the premium you pay for so called added value brand products actually have LESS chocolate less high quality ingredients inside that “premium” product. It makes totally sense from a classic economic point of view. Try to sell the lowest quality with the maximum of high end marketing to a even higher premium price. And does it work? Well currently this is the way most business work. Consumers are happy living the marketing-lie ;-). Is it bad or morally okay? Well its absolutely legal. Most fortune 500 companies do it. It seems that consumers are not aware of it or they simply don’t care about this little detail. This is just the tip of the iceberg. Try to investigate what quality of chocolate it being used for most chocolate bars… Try to see how and where the cacao is grown, fumigated, harvested, dried, fermented how much a cacao farmer makes selling the cacao beans. And how much the brand or the retailer makes selling the chocolate.

Riots and protests over food prices have broken out in 30 countries since 2007 (The Great Disruption).

The so called Fair Trade products are not really fair its more of a brilliant marketing stunt for the end consumer. Example: Reasons Fair-Trade Coffee Doesn’t Work.


Fairtrade is not transparent!

The Fair Trade Scandal, states, “Fair Trade is but the most recent example of another sophisticated ‘scam’ by the ‘invisible hand’ of the free market. This noble endeavor for the salvation of the free market was tamed and domesticated by the very forces it wanted to fight. With its usual efficiency, the free market triggered the implosion of the Fair Trade universe and hijacked its mission, without Fair Trade supporters and stakeholders even realizing it.”

Despite the implications of its name, “Fairtrade” prices do not necessarily cover any of the basic costs of life—like housing, food, or education—for growers. Fair Trade labels don’t list the amount paid to farmers; that sum requires research… The amount can vary depending on the commodity. An analysis using information from TransFair shows that cocoa farmers get 3 cents of the $3.49 spent on a 3.5-ounce chocolate bar labeled “organic fair trade” sold at Target in the UK (!) Farmers receive 24 cents for a one-pound (0.5kg) bag of fair trade sugar sold at Whole Foods for $3.79.

One sack (138 pounds) earns a Ghanaian farmer about $106, but can flavor more than 100 pounds of candy. Put another way: Ghanaian cocoa farmers are getting about 77 cents per pound, where a high-end maker selling 2-ounce chocolate bars for $9 apiece earns $72 per pound. Even your basic $2 bar brings in $16 per pound, about 20 times what the farmer gets. According to the Fairtrade Foundation, cocoa growers in West Africa earn, on average, about 6 percent of the final cost of a chocolate bar. (source YesMagazine)


example: Ecuadorian traffic light food label

Labeling: Product cost breakdown overview

In a ideal world every product should have a transparent label indicating not only the nutritional level like in Ecuador (Food Labeling in Ecuador) but also the product price value breakdown.

A transparent overview of the product cost breakdown: Production (farmer), packaging, Taxes, Marketing, Permits, Transportation, Listing, middlemen, retailer and commission costs E-commerce, carbon footprint, CO2, etc.

So fairtrade may be a better option but is still far away from FAIR. If you look at who creates the value eg food and who makes more value eg money it is never the farmer but always some middleman or the retailer… Why is this so important and what does that mean. Well at the end of the day it means that there is little $ motivation for the farmer to really care for the crops for them to be healthy. The motivation is to produce maximum quantity to make a little more money. So why should you care? Well 🙂 YOU will be most likely buying from some retailer food … and if you keep in mind that the price does not reflect the quality nor does fair trade or organic certifications…


T-shirt, craft beer, sneaker and chocolate bar price breakdown overview

Beer cost-to-make-adidas-yeezys Real cost of a chocolate bar


The current system is broken

Ideally would be to buy your food directly from the farmer but that highly unlikely going to happen today. BUT it would be the most logical thing. The farmer would sell at a better price for him and still be less expensive than the retailer in many cases. The quality would be much better knowing exactly where your food was grown. Nowadays we are far away from this.

“Often fair trade is sold at a premium, but the entire premium goes to the middlemen.” Farmers stay poor. End clients have no idea about product quality and social impact.


What about Organic/Natural/Free-Range/nonGMO and other Food Label  certifications?

The world of organic labelling is probably one of the most complicated ones. What does it actually mean? Biological or organic farmed products (fruit, vegetable, cereal or animal products, etc) are made without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers or genetically modified organisms, and probably some other unnatural practices. The animals producing meat, eggs or milk are not given any antibiotics or growth hormones.

Organic is not always equally sustainable.

Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming in general features practices that strive to cycle resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.

Selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) or European Commission (EC).

The USDA states that the goal of organic foods and organic farming is to “integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.” Certification costs vary depending on the size of your production operation and on the accredited agency you choose to use. In general, organic certification costs run between $200 – $1500. Your costs will include an application fee, site inspection fee, and an annual certification fee.


Organic/Bio Labels

To be able to use the word organic on a food label in Canada or the U.S., the product must have at least 70 percent organic ingredients and be free of GMOs and the worst of the food additives. A Certified Organic product contains at least 95% organic ingredients, and has an official USDA or Canada Organic/ Biologique label. These products are grown without chemical herbicides, pesticides, fungicides, fertilizers, sewage sludge, or GMOs. Animals raised organically have access to pasture, eat organic feed that contains no antibiotics, and do not receive synthetic growth hormones. Organic products cannot be irradiated or have synthetic additives. The USDA Organic label can also be used on personal care products that meet the organic food standard for their products, meaning they are not only organic but made of edible ingredients. Canada does not have a similar option. Canada’s organic label has come under criticism recently because, unlike in the United States, Canada does not require field tests and it outsources certification in countries such as China that have questionable environmental standards. Nonetheless, the Certified Organic label for food is still the best assurance of quality.

Organic taste

Obviously, whether organic foods taste better is a matter of, well, taste. Many people swear by the difference in organic eggs, dairy, meats, and some produce. Others say that when blindfolded, those same people wouldn’t be able to tell the difference between organic and conventional. There’s incredibly little data on this topic, so we’ll have to leave it up to you and your palate to decide. Price: At most supermarkets, organic goods come at a premium price. Part of it is a matter of supply and demand, and part of it is that organic produce, meat, and dairy often require more money to grow than conventional goods.

For many, eating organic is a luxury they can’t afford. For others, it’s a matter of taste and quality.

Organic yes or no?

If the reason you’ve been buying organic is because you believe they’re “better for you” nutritionally, then there’s no reason to continue according to current studies from the food industry…

However, if you’ve been buying them because they’re “better for you” in terms of chemical pesticides or growth hormones or antibiotics, you’ll definitely be getting food with lower levels (!) makes sense right. Also if the critical concern for you is environmental sustainability, or putting your money where your agricultural mouth is, then you have a compelling reason to keep buying organic.


nonGMO or GMO-Free Labels

GMOs — or genetically modified organisms — aka GM or GE (genetically engineered) refer to plants or animals created through the changing or merging of a species’ DNA. Canada allows GM varieties of corn, soy, sugar beets, canola, apples, and salmon. It’s the fourth largest producer of GM crops, well behind the U.S. and Brazil. We also import GM cottonseed oil, papaya, and squash. rGBH tainted milk products come from the U.S. in processed foods that contain milk solids or powders such as frozen desserts or mixed drinks with dairy. In the 20 years since GM ingredients were first introduced into Canada, these foods have made their way into most of the processed foods available in Canada. Unless you buy foods labelled organic or NON-GMO, you are almost certainly getting them in packaged foods that contain corn, canola, soy, or sugar. Unless the GMO-free claim is backed up with the NON-GMO Project label or, even better, one of the Certified Organic labels mentioned above, it’s a meaningless claim. It should be noted that the NON-GMO label does not mean that a product is organic. Indeed, having a NON-GMO label on something like strawberries is meaningless as strawberries are not currently being genetically modified anywhere, yet they are a pesticide-intensive crop. You are far better-off spending the money on the organic strawberries or skipping over all the conventional strawberries, including the NON-GMO ones.

Cage-Free, Free-Range, Grass-Fed, Hormone-Free, Antibiotic-Free, Natural, or All-Natural Labels

These terms can be used without the independent verification that a third party provides. This makes them meaningless. Add to the list “No Antibiotics Used” or “No additional hormones added.” When I see one of these terms without a third-party certification, I assume the company is greenwashing.

Gluten-Free and Other Allergen Labels

Food allergies are on the rise and can be deadly. In the U.S. and Canada, labels must note foods that contain the top allergens, gluten, and added sulphites. When something has an added “Gluten-free” label that means that the item does not include any gluten-containing ingredients, although there still may be cross-contamination. An item can be certified gluten-free as long as it has 20 parts-per-million of gluten or less, which is safe for those with Celiac disease. For most people avoiding gluten, it is enough to just contain the gluten-containing grains which are: wheat, kamut, semolina, spelt, barley, bulgur, and rye.


THE OVERALL PROBLEM

Often certified foods or products ARE sold at a premium, but the entire premium goes to the middlemen.” Farmers/producer stay poor. End consumers have no or just very little idea about product background (nutritional quality, environmental and social impact). Also fertilizing, the use of chemical pesticides and growth hormones in conventional farming has caused, and is causing, enormous damage worldwide to local ecosystems, biodiversity, groundwater and drinking water supplies, and sometimes farmer health and fertility.


Local food and seasonal food?

In a ideal world people would buy local food. Local fruits.

So if Europeans buy apple nothing to worry about right?

No. Its not that simple. Europe has been importing Chilean Apples like crazy in 2018 because also of the climate change and the droughts in Europe (Chilean apple exports rose by about 60% to EU). Also there is a EWG’s 2018 Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce™ and apples are the 4th worth produce you can consume with the highest pesticides. According to that study 90% of conventional apples had detectable pesticide residues. 80% of apples tested contained diphenylamine, a pesticide banned in Europe. So if you do like apples try to eat them locally and seasonally. Good luck.


SOLUTION: Be the change you want to see!

We can encourage this by demanding that for example chocolate makers / retailers provide straightforward information about their products. Ask some hard questions about the chocolate on your store shelves—how much did farmers earn for the cocoa in this bar? Was it higher than the world market price, or about the same? What country did the cocoa beans come from? Expect to get correct information, and if someone answers you, “Switzerland,” start shopping somewhere else.

Possible solution in the Age of Social Media

(1) Cutting out as many intermediaries as possible from the food industry “value chain”

(2) Selling added value product via direct shipping (DropShipping) and subscriptions

(3) Labeling & communication: Transparent cost, quality and value for the end client

(4) Not limiting to one or a few products but enabling a generic direct trade system for farmers to create top quality added value products they can sell directly to end clients – thus increasing the potential gain for the farmer – thus motivating younger people to start farming again.

(5) You can be the change. After all you are going to eat it. So logically you should care about it…

(6) We could start to sell organic produce directly from the farmers to the consumers. DropShipping farm to table organic tropical crops aka “fair trade in the time of Social Media” …

Possible Solution something like CrowdContainer

What Are Food Forests

The PermaTree FoodForest(s) have been growing physically and also digitally, on the website. As you can imagine most plants need more than just 3 years to grow strong and even more to produce fruit. Even in the tropical climate we have at the farm. Currently producing from the list above are Bananas, Guayusa, Coffee and all the others including Bamboo, are still in the growing phase.

So we have been using the time to educate ourselves more on all the health benefits of the plants we are growing. Happy to share now and here with you, some of our learnings and findings.

The Food Forest is “Garden Eden”!

“Forest gardening” is a prehistoric method of securing food in tropical areas. These gardens exemplify polyculture, and conserve much crop genetic diversity and heirloom plants that are not found in monocultures. Forest gardens have been loosely compared to the religious concept of the Garden of Eden.

PermaTree Food Forest Status December 2018

We have the main overview Food Forest page which links to every element of the forest. So far (December 2018) we have been able to publish about the following healthy crops:

  1. Did you know that the Avocado tree carries monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid?
  2. Are you aware that the Banana act as a prebiotic, stimulating the growth of friendly bacteria and  produces digestive enzymes to assist in absorbing nutrients?
  3. Did you know that the Coconut supplies an impressive 61% dietary fiber and contain two types of carbohydrates?
  4. Did you know that according to one legend the Coffee plant was discovered during the 9th-century by a Ethiopian goatherd named Kaldi, when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant
  5. Imagine a energizing healthy indigenous beverage you have never heard of yet … which will give you energy and keep you awake but in a gentle way without making you nervous. Extremely healthy. Stimulates  the immune system. No yellow teeth, no bad breath. Sounds like something made up right? Guess what we discovered this amazonian beverage in our farm and its called: Guayusa It contains LOTS of Antioxidants, stimulant: Theobromine (found in cacao), amino acid: L-theanine (found in green tea) aaand Caffeine (found in coffee).
  6. Have you hear of a fruit which looks like snake eggs and tastes like apple with lemon but really tasty? In some places they call it the ‘memory fruit’ because of the high amount of potassium and pectin. But because of the odd looks, its better know as Snakefruit (salak)
  7. Did you know there is a tropical fruit where practitioners of herbal medicine in Asian, African and South American countries have used the bark, leaves, root, and fruits of the soursop tree to treat infections with viruses or parasites, arthritis, depression, stomach ailments, fever, parasitic infections, hypertension and rheumatism. It’s used as a sedative, as well. But claims of the fruit’s anti-cancer properties have attracted the most attention. It tastes like strawberry and pineapple with an underlying creamy flavor of coconut or banana. Nothing less complex. This fruit is called Soursop (Annona muricata)
  8. And last but not least some information about the fastest growing plant in the world which does NOT  require irrigation, fertilizer or pesticides: Bamboo – it’s not only used for constructions as you may know but it is TRUE multipurpose crop, with over 1500 documented uses (!) One of them is that the bamboo shoots can be cocked and eaten (contains phytochemicals, which have antibacterial and antiviral effects in the body. They are a good source of dietary fibre. Bamboo shoots contain potassium, important for a healthy heart and to maintain normal blood pressure). The leafs can be used to drink tea or beer (Bambusa). The bamboo shoots MUST be cooked because most bamboo species contain cyanide compounds of varying levels, with species cultivated for food containing the least amount.