The current state (from March 2016 to December 2018) of all the photographed bio diverse fauna at finca PermaTree. Located in the southeastern region of Ecuador, alongside the Cóndor Cordillera at the edge of the Andes mountain range and the Amazon River Basin in Ecuador. More basic farm information about PermaTree – here / GPS coordinates of Finca PermaTree. Most used device to photograph the fauna where 1. Smartphones 2. Digital bridge cameras 3. Solar Trail Cameras – so the quality may vary a lot.
All species are interconnected. They depend on one another. Forests provide homes for animals. Animals eat plants. The plants need healthy soil to grow. Fungi help decompose organisms to fertilize the soil. Bees and other insects carry pollen from one plant to another, which enables the plants to reproduce. With less biodiversity, these connections weaken and sometimes break, harming all the species in the ecosystem.
Monitoring Fauna Biodiversity at PermaTree
It’s going to be a working progress regarding all the correct English and Scientific naming, so we can use any one who is interested in helping out / contributing with their knowledge of fauna. We believe this is a key pillar as holistic permaculture farm to be monitoring our local environment and understand the occurring changes and if needed what actions we undertake to improve the status quo.
So far we have been able to identity – Amphibians (Frog, Crab), Reptiles (Snakes, Lizards, Geckos, Iguana), Grasshoppers, Mantises (Praying Mantis), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and lost of birds (Parrot, Tucan, Hummingbirds, Woodpecker, etc), Spiders (Araneae), Scorpion, Dragon Fly, Caterpillars, Hymenoptera (Ants), Wasps, Flies and Bees, Moskitos, Mammals (Rabbit, Armadillo, Peccary, Agouti), more Insects, Beetles and Bugs.
Dwarf Blue-Headed Parrot (Pionus Sordidus)
Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus)
Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus)
The blue-gray tanager is a medium-sized South American songbird of the tanager family, Thraupidae. Its range is from Mexico south to northeast Bolivia and northern Brazil, all of the Amazon Basin, except the very south. It has been introduced to Lima. On Trinidad and Tobago, this bird is called blue jean.
Turquoise Dacnis (Dacnis hartlaubi)
Yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela)
The yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela) is a passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds in much of northern South America from Panama and Trinidad south to Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil. The song of the male yellow-rumped cacique is a brilliant mixture of fluting notes with cackles, wheezes and sometimes mimicry. There are also many varied calls, and an active colony can be heard from a considerable distance. In Peruvian folklore, this species – like other caciques and oropendolas – is called paucar, or – referring to this species only – paucarcillo (“little paucar”). This species is apparently the paucar that, according to a folktale of Moyobamba, originated as a rumor-mongering boy who always wore black pants and a yellow jacket. When he spread an accusation against an old woman who was a fairy in disguise, she turned him into a noisy, wandering bird. The bird’s appearance is thought to augur good news.
Crested oropendola (Psarocolius Decumanus)
The crested oropendola also known as the Suriname crested oropendola or the cornbird (Psarocolius decumanus) is a New World tropical icterid bird. It is a resident breeder in lowland South America east of the Andes, from Panama and Colombia south to northern Argentina, as well as on Trinidad and Tobago.It is a common bird, seen alone or in small flocks foraging in trees for large insects, fruit and some nectar. The male is 46 cm long and weighs 300 g; the smaller female is 37 cm long and weighs 180 g. The plumage of the crested oropendola has a musty smell due to the oil from the preen gland. Adult males are mainly black with a chestnut rump and a tail which is bright yellow apart from two dark central feathers. There is a long narrow crest which is often difficult to see. The iris is blue and the long bill is whitish. Females are similar but smaller, duller, and crestless. The crested oropendola inhabits forest edges and clearings. It is a colonial breeder which builds a hanging woven nest, more than 125 cm long, high in a tree. It lays two blotched blue-grey eggs which hatch in 15–19 days, with another 24–36 days to fledging.
Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo)
The silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder in South America from eastern Colombia and Venezuela south to Paraguay and central Brazil, Perú and on Trinidad. Silver-beaked tanagers are 18 centimetres long and weigh 25 grams. Adult males are velvety crimson black with a deep crimson throat and breast. The upper mandible of the bill is black, but the enlarged lower mandible is bright silver in appearance. The bill is pointed upwards in display. The female is much duller, with brownish upperparts, reddish brown underparts and a black bill. These are social birds which eat mainly fruit, but insects are also taken. The silver-beaked tanager is often seen in groups of six to ten, frequently giving a call described as cheeng. Its song is a slow thin kick-wick.
Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata)
Hummingbirds are birds native to the Americas and constitute the biological family Trochilidae. They are known as hummingbirds because of the humming sound created by their beating wings which flap at high frequencies audible to humans. They hover in mid-air at rapid wing-flapping rates, which vary from around 12 beats per second in the largest species, to in excess of 80 in some of the smallest. Of those species that have been measured in wind tunnels, their top speed exceeds 15 m/s (54 km/h) and some species can dive at speeds in excess of 22 m/s (79 km/h).
Amazonian Grey Saltator (Saltator coerulescens)
The greyish saltator (Saltator coerulescens) is a seed-eating songbird that is widespread in the tropical Americas. On average, the greyish saltator is 20 cm long and weighs 52 g. The plumage depends on age and subspecies, but in general this bird has grey or greyish-olive upperparts, a white stripe over the eye, a narrow white throat, a grey breast and a buff or cinnamon belly.
Violaceous jay (Cyanocorax Violaceus)
Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis)
The social flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) is a passerine bird from the Americas, a member of the large tyrant flycatcher family (Tyrannidae). They like to perch openly in trees, several meters above ground. From such perches they will sally out for considerable distances to catch insects in flight, to which purpose they utilize a range of aerobatic maneuvers. They also regularly hover and glean for prey and small berries—e.g. from gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba), which they seek out and also utilize in human-modified habitat such as secondary forest or urban parks and gardens—and will pick off prey from the ground and even enter shallow waters to feed on aquatic invertebrates, tadpoles and occasionally small fish.
Collared Araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) Toucan
The collared aracari or collared araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) is a toucan, a near-passerine bird. It breeds from southern Mexico to Panama; also Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica. Like other toucans, the collared aracari is brightly marked and has a large bill. The sexes are alike in appearance, with a black head and chest and dark olive green upperparts, apart from a red rump and upper tail. There is reddish collar on the rear neck which gives rise to the English and scientific (torquatus) names. The underparts are bright yellow, with a round black spot in the centre of the breast and a red-tinted black band across the belly. The thighs are chestnut. This species is primarily an arboreal fruit-eater, but will also take insects, lizards, eggs, and other small prey.
Yellow-tufted woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus)
The yellow-tufted woodpecker is a species of woodpecker. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.
Palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum)
The palm tanager is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder from Nicaragua south to Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil. It also breeds on Trinidad and, since 1962, on Tobago. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is known by colloquial names such as the “palmiste” and the “green jean”.
Blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis)
The blue-necked tanager is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and heavily degraded former forest.
Streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii)
The streak-headed woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes souleyetii) is a passerine bird which breeds in the tropical New World from southern Mexico to northwestern Peru, northern Brazil and Guyana, and also on Trinidad. This woodcreeper is found in lowlands up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) altitude, although normally below 900 m (3,000 ft), in damp light woodland, plantations, gardens, and clearings with trees. It builds a leaf-lined nest 4.5 to 24 m (15 to 79 ft) up in a tree cavity, or sometimes an old woodpecker hole, and lays two white eggs. The streak-headed woodcreeper feeds on spiders and insects, creeping up trunks and extracting its prey from the bark or mosses. It is normally seen alone or in a pair and unlike spot-crowned, rarely joins mixed-species feeding flocks.
Unknown Bird Species
Lagartija Espinosa – Spiny Lizard
Striking Yellow-Black Rain Frog (Dendropsophus rhodopeplus) Ranita bandeada
Freshwater crabs are found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They live in a wide range of water bodies, from fast-flowing rivers to swamps, as well as in tree boles or caves. They are primarily nocturnal, emerging to feed at night; most are omnivores, although a small number are specialist predators, such as Platythelphusa armata from Lake Tanganyika, which feeds almost entirely on snails. Some species provide important food sources for various vertebrates. A number of freshwater crabs are secondary hosts of flukes in the genus Paragonimus, which causes paragonimiasis in humans. The majority of species are narrow endemics, occurring in only a small geographical area.
Monkey- or Matchstick Grasshoppers (Eumastacidae)
Eumastacidae are a family of grasshoppers sometimes known as monkey- or matchstick grasshoppers. They usually have thin legs that are held folded at right angles to the body, sometimes close to the horizontal plane. Many species are wingless and the head is at an angle with the top of the head often jutting above the line of the thorax and abdomen. They have three segmented tarsi and have a short antenna with a knobby organ at the tip. They do not have a prosternal spine or tympanum. Most species are tropical and the diversity is greater in the Old World. They are considered primitive within the Orthoptera and feed on algae, ferns and gymnosperms, the more ancient plant groups. The families Chorotypidae and Morabidae were formerly included in this group as subfamilies but are now considered as families within the Eumastacoidea. With the exception of the central Asian Gomphomastacinae, all other subfamilies are restricted to South America.
Black-collared Snake (aka Amazon egg eater; Drepanoides anomalous) Falsa ratonera
Yellow-bellied Puffing Snake (Spilotes Sulphureus aka Pseustes sulphureus)
Aka Pseustes sulphureus, commonly known as the yellow-bellied puffing snake, is a species of snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to South America. P. sulphureus is a large snake, which can grow up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) in total length (including tail). Adults of P. sulphureus feed on small mammals and birds, while juveniles feed on lizards, mice and rats.
Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria)
Epicrates cenchria is a boa species endemic to Central and South America. Common names include the rainbow boa, and slender boa. A terrestrial species, it is known for its attractive iridescent/holographic sheen caused by structural coloration. Nine subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies.
False Coral (Oxyrhopus petola)
Oxyrhopus petola, commonly known as the false coral or calico snake, is a species of colubrid snake endemic to South America. O. petolarius is rear-fanged, and its venom is extremely toxic to anole lizards. O. petolarius feeds on lizards, frogs, small rodents, birds, and probably other snakes.
Hoja Podrida (Bothrops atrox)
Bothrops atrox — also known as the common lancehead, fer-de-lance, barba amarilla and mapepire balsain — is a venomous pit viper species found in the tropical lowlands of northern South America east of the Andes. The color pattern is highly variable, including a ground color that may be olive, brown, tan, gray, yellow, or (rarely) rusty. The body markings are highly variable, as is the degree of contrast: in some specimens the pattern is very well defined, while in others it may be virtually absent. In general, however, the body pattern consists of a series of dorsolateral blotches, rectangular or trapezoidal in shape, which extend from the first scale row to the middle of the back. These blotches may oppose or alternate across the midline, often fusing to form bands. They also have pale borders, which in some cases may be prominent, and may be invaded from below by tan or gray pigment, occasionally dividing them into pairs of ventrolateral spots. The belly may be white, cream or yellowish gray, with an increasing amount of gray to black mottling posteriorly that may fade again under the tail. The head usually does not have any markings other than a moderately wide postocular stripe that runs from behind the eye back to the angle of the mouth. The iris is gold or bronze, with varying amounts of black reticulation, while the tongue is black. Although generally terrestrial, it is also an excellent swimmer and even climbs trees when necessary to reach prey. Generally nocturnal, it may forage at any time of the day, though, if necessary. These snakes are also easily agitated.
These snakes are known to search for rodents in coffee and banana plantations. Workers there are often bitten by the snakes, which can lie camouflaged for hours, nearly undetectable, and strike with high speed. Their venom consists mostly of hemotoxin, a toxic protein that affects the circulatory and nervous system; it destroys red blood cells, and sometimes loss of memory occurs. They are much feared because their venom is particularly lethal and fast acting. Presently, treatment is usually possible if the victim receives medical attention soon enough. Commonly, bites from this snake cause symptoms including nausea, blackouts, and paralysis. In almost all cases, temporary and sometimes permanent loss of local or ‘short term’ memory were reported. Extended hospital stays, as well as weight loss of up to 15 pounds, have also been reported. Venom yield averages 124 milligrams (1.91 gr), although it may be as much as 342 milligrams (5.28 gr). The enzyme reptilase (batroxobin), derived from this snake’s venom, is used in modern medical laboratories to measure fibrinogen levels and blood coagulation capability. The test is considered to be a replacement for thrombin time, and is used when heparin is present in the sample. The enzyme is unaffected by heparin.
Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)
Amarynthos mineria riodinidae
Amarynthis is a monotypic genus of butterflies in the family Riodinidae. Its sole species, Amarynthis meneria, the meneria metalmark, is a common species in lowland rainforests east of the Andes from Venezuela, Suriname and Guyana, south through the Brazilian Amazon to Peru and northern Argentina.
Diaethria clymena nymphalidae 89 o 98 Butterfly
Diaethria is a brush-footed butterfly genus found in the Neotropical realm, ranging from Mexico to Paraguay.
Species in this genus are commonly called eighty-eights like the related genera Callicore and Perisama, in reference to the characteristic patterns on the hindwing undersides of many. In Diaethria, the pattern consists ofZ black dots surrounded by concentric white and black lines, and typically looks like the numbers “88” or “89”.
Giant Own Butterfly
The owl butterflies, the genus Caligo, are known for their huge eyespots, which resemble owls’ eyes. They are found in the rainforests and secondary forests of Mexico, Central, and South America.
Bullseye moth. Automeris liberia CRAMER, 1780
Pipevine swallowtail butterfly
Battus philenor, the pipevine swallowtail or blue swallowtail, is a swallowtail butterfly found in North America and Central America. This butterfly is black with iridescent-blue hindwings. They are found in many different habitats, but are most commonly found in forests. Caterpillars are often black or red, and feed on compatible plants of the genus Aristolochia. They are known for sequestering acids from the plants they feed on in order to defend themselves from predators by being poisonous when consumed. The adults feed on the nectar of a variety of flowers. Some species of Aristolochia are toxic to the larvae, typically tropical varieties.
Flower Crab Spider (Epicadus heterogaster)
The flower crab spiders (Epicadus heterogaster) attracts and eat insects by disguising themselves as flowers. They can change colors to better match the flower on which they are.
Crocothemis erythraea is a species of dragonfly in the family Libellulidae. Its common names include broad scarlet, common scarlet-darter, scarlet darter and scarlet dragonfly
Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonizing most landmasses except Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests.
Wasps, Flies and Bees
Cuckoo Wasp (Chrysididae)
Commonly known as cuckoo wasps or emerald wasps, the hymenopteran family Chrysididae is a very large cosmopolitan group of parasitoid or kleptoparasitic wasps, often highly sculptured, with brilliant metallic colors created by structural coloration.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the western honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees range in size from tiny stingless bee species whose workers are less than 2 millimetres (0.08 in) long, to Megachile pluto, the largest species of leafcutter bee, whose females can attain a length of 39 millimetres (1.54 in). The most common bees in the Northern Hemisphere are the Halictidae, or sweat bees, but they are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies.
Melipona (stingless honey bees)
The stingless bees Melipona local is a genus of stingless bees, widespread in warm areas of the Neotropics (Latin American) Stingless bees, sometimes called stingless honey bees or simply meliponines, are a large group of bees (about 500 species), comprising the tribe Meliponini (or subtribe Meliponina according to other authors). They belong in the family Apidae, and are closely related to common honey bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, and bumblebees. Meliponines have stingers, but they are highly reduced and cannot be used for defense, though these bees exhibit other defensive behaviors and mechanisms. Meliponines are not the only type of “stingless” bee; all male bees and many female bees of several other families, such as Andrenidae, also cannot sting.
Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)
Armadillos are New World placental mammals in the order Cingulata with a leathery armour shell. About nine extant genera and 21 extant species of armadillo have been described, some of which are distinguished by the number of bands on their armour. Their average length is about 75 cm (30 in), including tail. The giant armadillo grows up to 150 cm (59 in) and weighs up to 54 kg (119 lb), while the pink fairy armadillo is a diminutive species, with an overall length of 13–15 cm (5–6 in). All species are native to the Americas, where they inhabit a variety of different environments. Recent genetic research suggests that an extinct group of giant armoured mammals, the glyptodonts, should be included within the lineage of armadillos, having diverged some 35 million years ago, much more recently than previously assumed.
Peccary (Wild Spiked Boar)
A peccary (also javelina or skunk pig) is a medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae (New World pigs). They are found throughout Central and South America and in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries usually measure between 90 and 130 cm (3.0 and 4.3 ft) in length, and a full-grown adult usually weighs about 20 to 40 kg (44 to 88 lb).
Central American Agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) – Guatusa
The Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) is a species of agouti from the family Dasyproctidae. The main portion of its range is from Chiapas and the Yucatan Peninsula (southern Mexico), through Central America, to northwestern Ecuador, Colombia and far western Venezuela. A highly disjunct population is found in southeastern Peru, far southwestern Brazil, Bolivia, western Paraguay and far northwestern Argentina. The disjunct population has been treated as a separate species, the brown agouti (Dasyprocta variegata), but a major review of the geographic variation is necessary. The Central American agouti has also been introduced to Cuba, Bahamas, Jamaica, Hispaniola and the Cayman Islands.
Machaca amazonica (Fulgora laternaria)
The fulgorid insect Fulgora laternaria (often misspelled “lanternaria”), is a planthopper known by a large variety of common names including lantern fly, peanut bug, peanut-headed lanternfly, alligator bug, machaca, chicharra-machacuy, cocoposa (in Spanish) and jequitiranaboia (in the Amazon region).
New World Screw Worm (Cochliomyia) flesh eating screwworm
Cochliomyia is a genus in the family Calliphoridae, known as blowflies, in the order Diptera. Cochliomyia is commonly referred to as the New World Screwworm Flies, as distinct from Old World Screw Worm Flies. Four species are in this genus: C. macellaria, C. hominivorax, C. aldrichi, and C. minima. C. hominivorax is known as the primary screwworm because its larvae produce myiasis and feed on living tissue. This feeding causes deep, pocket-like lesions in the skin, which can be very damaging to the animal host. C. macellaria is known as the secondary screwworm because its larvae produce myiasis, but feed only on necrotic tissue. This species is forensically important because it is often associated with dead bodies and carcasses. Both C. hominivorax and C. macellaria thrive in warm, tropical areas. The New World screwworm fly shares many characteristics of the common house fly.